This article is the first in a series of articles that I will use to explore the science behind Scrum and Agile methodologies. Many working in software development might be familiar with Scrum, but not with the rich and vast array of scientific research it is based on. Most of you have probably heard of the research by Takeuchi & Nonaka (1986) that created the foundations of Scrum. But in these articles, I want to delve deeper into the decades of scientific research by organizational psychologists, sociologists, educational experts and cognitive psychologists that Scrum is based on. For the more practically minded; don’t worry. I will make sure to add a lot of useful (practical) pointers.